The Angoff methods are among the most widely used methods for determining a criterion-referenced passing standard—or cut score—for a licensing or certification test. There are several variations, including ScaleMark, which was pioneered by Wallace Judd of Authentic Testing. In all these variations, panelists are asked to think of a test taker who knows just enough to deserve the credential, or is just competent enough to rightfully hold the credential. Then, for every test item, panelists are asked how likely that test taker is to answer the item correctly.
A lot of times, panelists get confused about this concept. They estimate how hard the item is overall, or how difficult the concept is. In the video, I lead an exercise to help orient panelists.